Scientific Name:

 Fagraea spp. (Family: Loganiaceae)  

General Description:

Heavy Hardwood.Vernacular names applied include tembusu (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak) with various epithets, banati (Sabah), meriang (Peninsular Malaysia), temasuk (Sabah) and various other localised names too numerous to be listed here. Major species include F. belukar, F. cuspidata, F. fragrans, F. gigantea, F. resinosa, F. rugulosa, F. spicata, F. teysmannii and F. volubilis. Also known as Kankrao, Tatrao and Trai (Cambodia); Buabua (Fiji); Anrali, Bangkoedoe poete, Kolaki, Nosu, Seranai, Tamosu and Tembesu (Indonesia); Mai man pa (Laos); Anan, Ananma and Burma yellowheart (Myanmar); Dolo, Teca, Tiaong and Urung (Philippines); Keramati (Soloman Islands); Tembusu (Sri Lanka); Kan Krao, Tam-sao and Trai (Thailand); and Trai (Vietnam).  

Timber Description:

  • Density: 895-1,055 kg/m3
  • Heartwood: light yellow-brown, darkening on exposure to deep golden or orange-brown
  • Sapwood: not differentiated from the heartwood 

Spot Characters:

  • durable
  • texture is fine and even, with straight to slightly wavy grain
  • nailing property is rated as good


The timber is suitable for heavy construction, marine construction, posts, beams, joists, rafters, tool handles (impact), pallets (permanent heavy-duty type), door and window frames and sills, cooling tower (structural members), telegraphic and power transmission posts, bridges, flooring (heavy traffic), panelling, mouldings and heavy duty furniture. It has an excellent reputation as a carving timber.