Scientific Name:

Cotylelobium and Vatica spp. (Family: Dipterocarpaceae)  

General Description:

A heavy hardwood. Trees are usually small to medium sized and boles are usually cylindrical to a good height. Cotylelobium is found in low coastal hills of the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Vatica, on the other hand, is more widespread. Logs are usually resinous especially at both ends. Wood surfaces may also be seen with patches of resin very similar to that of Keruing┬átimber,  

Timber Description:

  • Density: 655-1,155 kg/m3
  • Heartwood: yellow-brown to brown or reddish-brown, sometimes with an olive tinge when fresh
  • Sapwood: lighter in colour and usually distinct

Spot Characters:

  • vessels moderately small to medium sized, exclusively solitary
  • tyloses present
  • vertivcal canals diffuse, not readily distinguished from vessels; however, the presence of dark or white coloured resin provides a clue to the presence of canals
  • parenchyma in short narrow lines extending from ray to ray
  • rays of two distinct sizes
  • silver figure on radial surface


The timber is suitable for all forms of heavy construction, bridges, piling, beams, posts, joists, heavy duty flooring, power transmission poles, railway sleepers, parquet flooring, heavy duty furniture and wooden containers.