Scientific Name:

Lithocarpus spp. and Quercus spp. (Family: Fagaceae)    

General Description:

Medium Hardwood, widely used throughout the country and sabah oak in Sabah in obvious reference to its close botanical relationship with the temperate oaks. Major species include Lithocarpus cantleyanus, L. cyclophorus, L. encleisocarpus, L. ewyckii, L. gracilis, L. lampadarius, L. lucidus, L. maingayi, L. sundaicus, L. urceolaris, L. wallichianus; Quercus argentata and Q. gemelliflora. Also known as Indian oak (India); Kalal, Mempening batu, Mempening bunga, Mempening sunda, Obu, Pasang, Pinanak, Takalet and Uba (Indonesia); New Guinea oak (Papua New Guinea); Menaring, Oak and Pangnan (Philippines); Ko and Ko muu (Thailand); and Gie (Vietnam).  

Timber Description:

  • Density: 575-1,010 kg/m3
  • Heartwood: yellow-brown and red-brown, sometimes dark red
  • Sapwood: not always clearly defined but is usually lighter in colour than the heartwood

Spot Characters:

  • moderately durable under exposed conditions
  • texture is rather coarse and uneven due to the irregular distribution of the vessels and due to the wide rays.
  • grain is straight to interlocked and a true oak-line silver figure is prominent on the radial surface
  • nailing property is poor


The timber is suitable for heavy and medium construction if protected from termite attacks. It is also suitable for interior finishing, panelling, mouldings, joinery, cabinet making, decorative and high class furniture, flooring, staircase (apron lining, handrail and sprandrel framing), vehicle bodies (framework and floor boards), pallets (heavy duty and permanent type), plywood, columns (light duty), railway sleepers, tool handles (impact), door and window frames and sills, posts, beams, joists, rafters as well as telegraphic and power transmission posts and cross arms.