Scientific Name:

All species of Burseraceae


General Description:

Light Hardwood. Major species include Canarium apertum, C. littorale, C. pseudosumatranum; Dacroydes costata, D. incurvata; Santiria apiculata, S. conferta, S. tomentosa; Scutinanthe brunnea; and Triomma malaccensis. Also known as Kedondong (Brunei); Talat (Cambodia); Kaunicina (Fiji); Karapu kongiliam and White dhup (India); Bayung, Bosi, Kembajau, Kenari, Kerantai, Merasam putih, Merdondong, Ranggarai, Resung and Unggit (Indonesia); Canarium and Galip (Papua New Guinea); Dao, Gisaun, Kamingi, Kalaua, Pagsahingin, Pili and Pilingliitan (Philippines); Ma’ali (Samoa Islands); Kekuna (Sri Lanka); Ma Koem (Thailand); and Cham (Vietnam).  

Timber Description:

  • Density: 495-980 kg/m3 air dry and average density of 705 kg/mair dry
  • Heartwood: light yellow in Canarium apertum to yellow-green-brown in S. griffithii and S. rubiginosa to the common light red-brown and deep red-brown of the other species.
  • Sapwood: usually lighter in colour than the heartwood and not well defined from the heartwood. However, in Santiria griffithii and S. rubiginosa, the sapwood is well defined.

Spot Characters:

  • not durable if exposed to weather or in direct contact with the ground. The average service life for the species tested is 1.2 years. The sapwood of the timber is liable to heavy attack by powder-post beetles due to its high starch content. It was reported by Desch (1941) that the heartwood can be readily attacked by drywood termites
  • very difficult to treat with preservatives
  • texture is fairly fine and even, with shallowly or deeply interlocked grain
  • nailing property is good
  • The defects that are associated with the timbers of kedondong are the presence of knots and pin-holes on the surface. The timber of several species appears to be very liable to attack by blue-stain fungi soon after felling (Desch, 1941).


The timber is suitable as a general utility timber for posts, beams, joists, rafters, medium heavy structures, railway sleepers, vehicle bodies (framework and floor boards), planking, cladding, plywood, tool handles (non-impact), particleboard, flooring, furniture, packing boxes and crates as well as pallets (expendable and permanent light duty types).